Describe the political impact of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; include the impact on civil rights legislation: 

On the day of November 22, 1963 people lined the streets to get a look at the president, as the presidential car pulled onto Dealey Plaza shots were fired and JFK was shot twice in the neck and head. The assassin was identified as  Lee Harvey Oswald. Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn into office after JFK was pronounced dead.

Lyndon Johnson’s view on civil rights was the same as JFK. After JFK’s assassination Lyndon vowed to carry out his civil rights plan. He signed the Civil rights act into law which prohibited discrimination. John F. Kennedy was working on the Civil rights Act but never got the chance to pass it before he died. His goal was to end all discrimation and segregation in public areas.

Reflection: Lyndon B Johnson vowed to continue JFK’s ideals and by proceeding this he gave rights back to millions who deserved them and needed them.



Describe the Warren Court and the expansion of individual rights as seen in the Miranda decision: 

Earl Warren: Was Chief Justice from 1953-1969, he was chief justice on the JFK assassination. He was considered to judicial activist and believed the constitution should be interpreted with time.  He helped end school segregation in the Brown vs. Board case also.

  1. Brown v. Board of Education: May 1954, in Topeka, Kansas the the court ruling went against the previous ruling in Plessy vs Ferguson and ended separate but equal in public facilities. This ruling sparked a civil rights movement that would eventually go on to end segregation among our nation. 
  2. Gideon v. Wainwright: This case was about a man who lived in Florida who committed a misdemeanor, when he went to court he asked if he could be appointed an lawyer. But the court wouldn’t give him one since  in the state of Florida an attorney  may only be appointed to an indigent defendant in capital cases. Later, after spending time in prison he argued that the court denied his constitutional right of being represented by council, the final decision was made and the court denied his habeas corpus.
  3. Reynolds v. Sims: This case involved the Supreme Court that ruled that it had the authority to review cases brought by individuals harmed by legislative apportionment, this brought hundreds of lawsuits saying that this was unconstitutional. The final decision was that Supreme Court ruled that the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment requires that the legislative districts across states be equal in population, in 1964.
  4. Griswold v. Connecticut: The Supreme Court ruled that a state’s ban on the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. 
  5. Miranda v. Arizona:  In 1966 the supreme court ruled that detained criminal suspects, prior to police questioning, must be informed of their constitutional right to an attorney and against self-incrimination


Reflection: during this era of civil rights many inspirational people were born and led courageously to fight against discrimination. With the help of the supreme court segregation was put away.

“Griswold v. Connecticut.” Oyez, Accessed 24 Mar. 2017.


Describe the causes and consequences of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights act of 1965:

Civil Rights act of 1964: This act was first proposed by John F Kennedy, but was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The act ended segregation public places and banned any type of discrimination on race, gender, sex, or national origin. This act has thus been considered one of the greatest legislative achievements. 

24th Amendment: This amendment states that the united states cannot abridge or deny a citizen who hasn’t paid taxes to vote for and election whether it be the election or president or vice president. This gave more people the chance to vote if hey had fewer voting rights.

Voting rights act of 1965: Was signed into law by Lyndon Johnson, was aimed to overcome legal barriers that prevent the right of African Americans to vote at state and local level. There isn’t any provisions besides the fact that this act was designed to prevent backsliding by states whose discriminatory literacy tests were outlawed by the original act in 1965.

Reflection: The civil rights act and voting act both went towards the expansion of rights of African Americans and others as well. Discrimination was cut down dramatically, and many more people started to feel free.


Describe the Significance of Martin Luther King Jr.’s Letter from Birmingham Jail and his I Have A Dream speech:

Martin Luther King Jr.’s Letter from Birmingham Jail was written in April of 1963. The letter was a response to religious leaders and  more moderate white Americans. Without any resources or notes he wrote a 7,000 word letter to fight against his accusers, who accused him for actions which are completely constitutional.

March on Washington: On April 28, 1963 hundreds of thousands of people gathered to march for civil rights and social freedom. Martin Luther King led this march and gave his famous ‘I Have a Dream” speech. The march achieved not only great strive toward blacks freedom and equality but also hope, and a belief in the democratic process.

MLK “I have a dream speech”: this speech was pointed towards everyone. This speech was to show his ideals on the future and how blacks should be treated. He first celebrates the emancipation proclamation, but then turns it around and jumps to present day 1963 and tells all how African Americans still aren’t free, from police brutality, to segregation,etc.

Malcolm X was also a civil rights leader except that he encouraged other ways to fight for civil freedom. Instead of peaceful non violent protest Malcolm promoted all races to defend them selves in any means necessary. His autobiography paved the way for the Black power movement in the late 1960’s and 70’s.

Black Panthers: was a revolutionary black nationalist and socialist organization active in the United States from 1966 until 1982, that fought for revolutionary socialism. One of the first Militantly struggle for ethnic minority and working class emancipation.-True peace is not merely the absence of tension; it is the presence of justice.-

Reflection: Many leaders took great risk and courage to fight for what they believe in. without these courageous men African Americans might not have been integrated as well as today.



Explain Brown v. Board of Education and efforts to resist the decision:

The Chief Justice on the decision was Earl Warren. On May 17th 1954, the ruling was that racial segregation in public facilities was unconstitutional. This ruling overturned provisions of the Plessy vs Ferguson case of separate but equal facilities. The Brown vs Board decision helped create a spark in the American civil rights movement.  Brown II issued in 1955 decreed that all schools of segregation would be dismantled quickly.

Little Rock Nine was a group of students attending Little Rock Central High School in 1957. This led to a crisis in which the governor would not let the students have entry, because the school was all white. Governor Orval Faubus ordered the national guard to prevent them from enrolling into the school. On the same day President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent federal troops to escort the little rock nine into the school and they had their first day of class. This event tested the ruling in Brown vs Board. 7 years later though a governor on the segregation board prevented African American students from entering the University of Alabama, so president Kennedy had to send federal troops to forcefully integrate the school.

Image result for brown vs board of education result

Reflection: These events sparked a huge change in civil america, this step was one to be remembered as in today all schools are successfully integrated and that there aren’t any racial segregated places.



ID Jackie Robinson and the integration of baseball:

On April 15th 1947 Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play in the big leagues. He played for the Brooklyn Dodgers and led them to the world series. He won MVP in 1962. The reaction among st  the players and fans lean towards hate and wanted Jackie Robinson to leave the mlb, but the dodgers commissioner wanted to break the segregation barrier in baseball so he decided to grant Robinson a contract to play with the Brooklyn Dodgers. Soon after Jackie many others started to join the mlb. Examples are Willie Mays, Larry Doby, Hank Thompson.


Image result for jackie robinson

Reflection: I learned that Jackie Robinson broke the segregation barrier in the major leagues, and that after he retired from baseball he continued to fight for civil rights until he died at age 53. He was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 1962. Finally, I learned about how hard it was to play in the major leagues when you were receiving hate letters and getting thrown at while hitting. It took great courage to do what he did.

Baseball is like a poker game. Nobody wants to quit when he's losing; nobody wants you to quit when you're ahead.



  • Explain the importance of President Truman’s order to integrate the US military and the federal government: 

Executive order 9981: was an executive order issued by president Truman that abolished discrimination in the armed forces and led to the end of segregation in the forces.  This impacted the government and military because millions of African Americans came into the force and Truman elected them for high position government offices. With the additional African Americans in the armed forces, the war in Europe progressed towards a victory. This resulted in almost complete termination of discrimination left among African Americans. This order was a huge step towards America becoming fully liberated and a place for anyone.  

Image result for Executive order 9981


Reflection: This order was a big step towards African Americans being fully liberated. This order made discrimination disappear. Without this executive order the outcome of many African Americans and the War maybe completely different.