Describe the Warren Court and the expansion of individual rights as seen in the Miranda decision: 

Earl Warren: Was Chief Justice from 1953-1969, he was chief justice on the JFK assassination. He was considered to judicial activist and believed the constitution should be interpreted with time.  He helped end school segregation in the Brown vs. Board case also.

  1. Brown v. Board of Education: May 1954, in Topeka, Kansas the the court ruling went against the previous ruling in Plessy vs Ferguson and ended separate but equal in public facilities. This ruling sparked a civil rights movement that would eventually go on to end segregation among our nation. 
  2. Gideon v. Wainwright: This case was about a man who lived in Florida who committed a misdemeanor, when he went to court he asked if he could be appointed an lawyer. But the court wouldn’t give him one since  in the state of Florida an attorney  may only be appointed to an indigent defendant in capital cases. Later, after spending time in prison he argued that the court denied his constitutional right of being represented by council, the final decision was made and the court denied his habeas corpus.
  3. Reynolds v. Sims: This case involved the Supreme Court that ruled that it had the authority to review cases brought by individuals harmed by legislative apportionment, this brought hundreds of lawsuits saying that this was unconstitutional. The final decision was that Supreme Court ruled that the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment requires that the legislative districts across states be equal in population, in 1964.
  4. Griswold v. Connecticut: The Supreme Court ruled that a state’s ban on the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. 
  5. Miranda v. Arizona:  In 1966 the supreme court ruled that detained criminal suspects, prior to police questioning, must be informed of their constitutional right to an attorney and against self-incrimination


Reflection: during this era of civil rights many inspirational people were born and led courageously to fight against discrimination. With the help of the supreme court segregation was put away.

“Griswold v. Connecticut.” Oyez, Accessed 24 Mar. 2017.


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